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Artificial Insemination: Working, Types, And More


Artificial insemination is one of the most widely utilized assisted reproductive technologies and has aided numerous people in starting a family that they’ve always wanted.

The term fertility treatment is often used to describe drugs that can increase the production of sperm or eggs as well as treatments that handle embryos, sperm, and eggs.

Contrary to its appearances, artificial insemination has been in practice since the first decades of the twentieth century.

Even though the method of assisting women to get pregnant has remained essentially the same throughout all these years, it has progressed a lot and grown more precise.

However, infertility management goes way beyond fertility therapies.

Infertility treatment might also entail the management of a medical condition, way of life adjustments, and surgical procedures.

Following a fertility assessment along with your spouse, you should start thinking about your treatment options.

In this article, we will be looking at all about artificial insemination.

What is Artificial Insemination?

A flexible, tiny catheter is inserted through the cervix during artificial insemination, also known[1] as IUI (intrauterine insemination), to transfer cleaned sperm straight into the uterus.

In the process[2] of artificial insemination, prepared semen from the donor (male partner) is inserted through the cervix into the uterus just right before ovulation.

It is a less invasive and complicated method[1] of reproductive therapy. Many sperm gets perished during sexual activity in natural insemination before they can ever reach the uterus.

During ovulation, there is more sperm present in the uterus, increasing the possibility that some of them may successfully travel to the fallopian tubes where egg fertilization takes place.

The goal of artificial insemination, a fertility procedure, is to increase the likelihood[3] of conception by directly inserting the prepared sperm, or the washed sperm, into the woman’s uterus.

Frozen sperm or fresh sperm from the male partner are both used in this treatment method. Intrauterine insemination is the most often used form of artificial insemination.

What Are The Different Types Of Artificial Insemination?

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is frequently mentioned when an individual discusses artificial insemination.

IUI is a reproductive procedure involving injecting specialized cleansed semen into a woman’s uterus with the help of specialized syringes.

Although intrauterine insemination is the most popularly known type of artificial insemination, there are also alternative ways to transfer sperm into the reproductive system of a woman.

  1. Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)

    When a couple has tried for a minimum of one year to get pregnant and still hasn’t succeeded, they might undergo IUI or intrauterine insemination.

    To facilitate conception, intrauterine insemination entails injecting sperm right into the uterus of a woman. This is collectively known as the fusion of sperm and egg.

    The sperm can enter the womb earlier thanks to this treatment, but it still has to travel to the egg to fertilize it independently.

    IUI is a fertility procedure recommended for couples who are experiencing issues[4], such as ejaculation dysfunction.

    Other problems may include[5] cervical issues, abnormal sperm motility or count, and unexplained infertility.

  2. Intavaginal Insemination (IVI)

    Couples who have unexplained infertility, male factor infertility, or endometriosis could benefit greatly from IVI as well as those couples who have damaged tubes.

    If the woman has one fallopian tube that is still capable[6] of receiving the zygote or the gametes (the oocyte and the sperm), GIFT (intrafallopian transfer) or ZIFT (zygote intrafallopian transfer) might be an option following in-vitro fertilization.

    The hidden risk of IVI, especially with ICSI, is that these problems are often largely ignored rather than treated or prevented.

    A 10-year follow-up reveals that most IVI-born children are developed cognitively, emotionally, and physically in a healthy manner.

    The perinatal result for every IVI-born child, however, is much poorer compared to children who are conceived normally.

    Women who use IVI are more likely to experience neonatal hospitalization, preterm birth, low birth weight, and multiple pregnancies.

  3. Intracervical Insemination (ICI)

    Intracervical insemination, or ICI, is the technique[7] of ejaculating sperm into the female’s reproductive system very close to or at the cervical aperture, which is essentially[8] the entrance of the uterus.

    ICI and IVI (intravaginal insemination) are sometimes used interchangeably. IVI and ICI frequently follow the same method. You have to do this procedure at a doctor’s medical clinic.

    To transfer the sperm at home, you may use a Mosie syringe that has been specially designed for the purpose.

    Sperm is usually injected into the cervix in the doctor’s chamber with the help[9] of a catheter.

  4. Intratubal Insemination (ITI)

    Another assisted reproductive technology known[10] to help with conception is ITI. One of the four available artificial insemination methods is this one.

    Using this method, sperm is directly injected into the woman’s fallopian tubes if their sexual interaction is unsuccessful in producing a fertilized egg.

    The sperm do not need to travel up to the cervix to fertilize the egg, which is a great benefit of this. The fallopian tubes are where fertilization occurs.

    However, this procedure is far more intrusive and expensive than other procedures. Because of this, it is hardly ever employed.

Who Can Use Artificial Insemination?

Couples who have tried to become pregnant naturally unsuccessfully for at least one year frequently use artificial insemination.

Male fertility issues, such as abnormalities[11] of ejaculation dysfunction, decreased sperm motility, and low sperm counts are frequently treated with it.

Couples who experience certain female infertility issues, especially those related[12] to abnormalities of the cervix.

This could make it more difficult for sperm to enter the uterus, and may benefit from artificial insemination.

Without a male partner, same-sex couples and single women could also use artificial insemination and donor sperm to become pregnant.

Below mentioned are some criteria required to avail of artificial insemination-

  • Failure of various assisted reproductive methods, including artificial insemination method using the husband’s sperm, on several occasions.
  • Azoospermic males’ which is the absence[13] of sperms while ejaculating.
  • Patients who are unable to pay for very costly medical procedures like that of ICSI.
  • Male partners contribute to the embryo’s genetic abnormalities. By using donor sperm, this risk could be avoided and healthy offspring is usually guaranteed.

What Is The Success Rate Of Artificial Insemination?

The result of insemination might rely on a variety of circumstances.

When taking into account the female component, like endometrial receptivity, the woman’s age, polycystic ovarian syndrome, or prior pathologies like endometriosis, these could affect the effectiveness of insemination.

In the event of a CAI, the seminal quality is crucial which necessitates a minimum motile sperm count of three million to successfully carry out insemination.

Typically, it is advised to make four or five attempts at insemination before pregnancy can be accomplished.

The place of origin of the semen and the age of the lady may affect cumulative rates as well.

According to a  study[14], one can achieve a 75% success rate for DAI and a 45% success rate for CAI in women who are under the age of 40.

The cumulative pregnancy rates for CAI and DAI between the ages of 30 and 39 are approximately 60% and 30%, respectively. The rates fall to 24% for DAI and 16% for CAI in women over the age of 40 years.

After four trials, if pregnancy cannot be accomplished, it is usually recommended that you switch to other assisted reproductive technology.

What Is The Average Cost Of Artificial Insemination?

The cost of Artificial Insemination could vary from country to country. It could be expensive in some countries while in other countries, it could be available at moderate costs.

However, depending on the patient, the cause of their infertility, and their age, success may vary greatly. Some patients might never become pregnant through the artificial insemination method.

Some insurance policies may cover artificial insemination even though it is typical for insurers to exclude reproductive treatments from coverage.

What Happens If Artificial Insemination Is Unsuccessful?

In the Artificial Insemination process, your doctor gives you an opportunity for your egg and sperm to fertilize on their own.

If for any reason this does not work, your doctor may advise you to try ICSI or IVF, depending on your health.

With[15] IVF, the sperm and the egg are fertilized outside the body, and then the formed embryo is placed inside the uterus with the hope that it will attach itself to the uterus’s inner lining.

This may not work if you have endometriosis, a condition that affects[16] the lining of your uterus. In this case, your doctor may need to deal with the root of the problem first or try another approach.


Artificial insemination has become one of the most popular fertility treatments today and is usually the first option a couple is recommended or is presented with by a healthcare professional.

Because the artificial insemination procedure only slightly increases your possibility of getting pregnant it may not be recommended for all patients.

Instead, you should consult with your doctor or a fertility specialist, who can guide you in making a better decision by personally assessing your health and making the proper diagnosis.


Working4Health prefers using primary and verified references. We have strict sourcing guidelines and our primary references include peer-reviewed research, academic, and medical institution studies.

  1. Sepideh Peivandi, Aghdas Ebadi, and Shila Modanlu, et al. The comparison between Intrauterine Insemination and Fallopian Tube Sperm Perfusion Using FAST®System in Patients with Unexplained Infertility. Int J Fertil Steril. 2015 Jan-Mar; 8(4): 379–384. Published online 2015 Feb 7. doi: 10.22074/ijfs.2015.4177
  2. W. Ombelet and J. Van Robays. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones. Facts Views Vis Obgyn. 2015; 7(2): 137–143.
  3. Conceiving a baby. Available from https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/Conceiving-a-baby
  4. Erectile Dysfunction (ED). Available from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/erectile-dysfunction
  5. Alexander Quaas and Anuja Dokras. Diagnosis and Treatment of Unexplained Infertility. Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Spring; 1(2): 69–76.
  6. Fernando Zegers-Hochschild, G David Adamson, Silke Dyer, et al. The International Glossary on Infertility and Fertility Care, 2017. Hum Reprod. 2017 Sep; 32(9): 1786–1801. Published online 2017 Jul 28. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dex234
  7. Amjad Alwaal, Benjamin N. Breyer, and Tom F. Lue, et al. Normal male sexual function: emphasis on orgasm and ejaculation. Fertil Steril. 2015 Nov; 104(5): 1051–1060. Published online 2015 Sep 16. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.08.033
  8. Reproductive system. Available from https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/reproductive-system
  9. Pedro J. Llamas-López, Rebeca López-Úbeda, Gustavo López, et al. A new device for deep cervical artificial insemination in gilts reduces the number of sperm per dose without impairing final reproductive performance. J Anim Sci Biotechnol. 2019; 10: 11. Published online 2019 Jan 28. doi: 10.1186/s40104-019-0313-1
  10. Assisted reproductive technology – IVF and ICSI. Available from https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/Assisted-reproductive-technology-IVF-and-ICSI
  11. Stephen W. Leslie; Larry E. Siref; Taylor L. Soon-Sutton; et al. Male Infertility. Last Update: July 19, 2022. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK562258/
  12. Infertility. Available from https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/infertility
  13. Azoospermia—Zero Sperm Count. Available from https://health.ucdavis.edu/urology/specialties/male_infertility_and_sexual_dysfunction/Male-Reproductive-Sexual-Health/Azoospermia.html
  14. Belege Tadesse, Abadi Amare Reda, Nuredin Teshale Kassaw, et al. Success rate of artificial insemination, reproductive performance and economic impact of failure of first service insemination: a retrospective study. BMC Vet Res. 2022; 18: 226.Published online 2022 Jun 14. doi: 10.1186/s12917-022-03325-1
  15. In vitro fertilization (IVF). Available from https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007279.htm
  16. Endometriosis. Available from https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/endometriosis

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